THE TAKEOVER OF THE CAPITAL - NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (ISSUED IN SEPTEMBER 1954)
In the current era of mass media, on October 10 every year, newspapers and television stations nationwide simultaneously report on this historic event. The takeover of the Capital on October 10, 1954, has gone down in history as a Peace Festival for the people of the Capital. Going back in time, for nearly 70 years, through documentary footage and black and white photos tinged with time, especially the newspaper issues published weekly before the takeover of the capital, each person felt joy and emotion that was indescribable.
Hanoi women wear traditional dress as they hold flags, flowers, and paper-cut doves to welcome the liberation army taking over the Capital. Photo by Nguyen Duy Kien
There are countless sacrifices and losses of our army and people in the beloved land of Hanoi to get those radiant images. The price of peace and victory at the negotiating table cannot be measured. Let's take a look at the important historical events that took place on this land to achieve that October 10: 60 days and nights of blood and tears (December 19, 1946 - February 17, 1947) to detain the enemy and consume their vital energy with the fighting spirit of "Determined to Brave Death for the Survival of the Fatherland". After nine years of resistance and hardship, we won the victory of Dien Bien Phu - becoming famous on five continents. The important historical events of the capital of Hanoi are closely related to the history and destiny of the entire nation. The modern history of the Vietnamese people has a direct influence on world history.The weeks leading up to a historic moment are always the days that contain the most surprising elements. Every move of the enemy and every action of our army was promptly recorded in detail by reporters of this period and announced to the people. The News is one of the influential newspapers, the information agency of the Hanoi Administrative Resistance Committee, continuously updating the situation in Hanoi's inner city.
The News No. 3 (issued from September 20 - September 24, 1954) - artifact of Hanoi Museum.
All over the front pages is News about the struggle of factory workers against the enemy's plot to move machinery and destroy property, such as: "Hanoi workers fight against the plot of Ngo Dinh group Diem moves machines"; "Determined to protect offices and factories"; "Welcoming the fighting spirit of workers and people of Hanoi".
Page 2 and page 3 of The News No. 3 with detailed content about the struggle process of workers at the Post Office warehouse factory, Bo Ho Power Plant and Yen Phu Power Plant.
The struggle of workers and warehouse factory employees; excerpt from the article: At 7:00 a.m. on September 9, Nguyen Ba Bat, deputy director of the Post Office, sent two soldiers from the Bao Chinh delegation to the factory and forced them to push the car to Hang Co station to transfer to Hai Phong. The workers were determined not to move and persuaded the soldiers to protest against Bat. That same afternoon, Bat ordered 20 soldiers to push the car away. The workers gathered together to explain to the soldiers. The whole group of soldiers moved out and stopped pushing the cart. At 9:00 a.m. on September 10, Bat and Inspector Lien led with 20 soldiers, police and secret agents. They brought two military trucks and broke into the factory to steal tools and put them in the car to drive away, leaving the workers unable to stop them. At 4:30 p.m. on the same day, Bat and Luat - representatives of the Bao Dai government and 40 soldiers and police guarded the rooms and ordered the workers to be kicked out of the office. On September 11 and 12, the workers gathered at the International Control Committee to denounce Ngo Dinh Diem's violations of the agreement, protesting against unreasonable evictions, demanding not to be allowed to switch machines, demanding salary payments and required to continue working. At peak from September 14-16, 60 workers sat in front of the factory to protest. Faced with the workers' fighting, the puppet directors returned a lathe.During the struggle at the Bo Ho power plant on September 9, the owner ordered the machine to be dismantled and moved to Hai Phong. The workers protested and determined not to let them take the machine away, making them unemployed and causing Hanoi to lack electricity. Knowing of the plot to move the machinery on Sunday, September 12, 200 workers at the Bo Ho Power Plant came to the factory to protect the machinery.
At the Yen Phu Power Plant, they did not allow coal supplies from Hai Phong. On September 9, they ordered the shipment of ten barrels of oil used to light the furnace. The workers fought to prevent them from moving the oil. Workers at the two power plants coordinated with each other to sign a joint petition and sent representatives to the International Control Committee to denounce their anti-agreement actions. The demands were: 1. Must deliver enough coal for the factory to continue work as usual; 2. Refrain from bringing machinery, tools and experts to the South; 3. Pay all outstanding amounts to the workers.
Every day and every hour, the people in the Capital and the country observed the progress of the struggle against the enemy's plot to destroy property before withdrawing troops. In the spirit of solidarity and persistent effort, the workers of the power plant and warehouse post office fought until the end. They had to make some concessions. The struggle has inspired and encouraged the fighting spirit of many workers and civil servants in Hanoi. Thanks to the effort, most factories and plants for electricity and water were protected and safe, maintaining the everyday life of people in the city.
However, on September 10, a regrettable event occurred: Ngo Dinh Diem's army destroyed the heritage of One Pillar Pagoda - a cultural architectural work with a long history. This event was simultaneously reported and condemned in both issues No. 3 and No. 5 of the News.
The News No. 5 (issued from September 27 to October 2, 1954) - artifact of Hanoi Museum.
On the front page of News No. 5, there was detailed information about the schedule and plans for the takeover of the Capital. Especially at the Central Joint Committee, the two sides agreed on an agreement: The transfer of Hanoi City must be carried out in an orderly and safe manner, ensuring no vandalism or destruction of public offices or public property and no disruption of administrative order in the city.
On October 6, the French army began to withdraw from the outer perimeter of Hanoi.
On October 8, they withdrew to De La Thanh, the road around the suburbs from Nhat Tan to Vinh Tuy.
On October 9, they withdrew from all inner and outer suburbs of Hanoi.
On October 10, the French army fled from Gia Lam, 30 kilometres from Hanoi towards Hai Duong.
President Ho Chi Minh once said: "Journalists are revolutionary soldiers. Pens and papers are their weapons". Thanks to those revolutionary press soldiers, the people of the Capital in particular, and the whole country in general, fully grasped the information and developments of the days before taking over the Capital. At the same time, the articles also played an essential role in encouraging the fighting spirit of workers and civil servants in Hanoi during that period. They contributed significantly to the success of the day of transfer - taking over the Capital in order and peace.