Starting 1965, the United States waged a destructive air and naval war on North Vietnam, and Hanoi in particular was targeted. From December 18th to December 29th, 1972, facing the risk of defeat in the southern battlefield, the United States launched air raids on Hanoi, Hai Phong and other areas of the North. In 12 days and nights, 81 American planes were shot down and many pilots captured. Having failed in the sky over Hanoi, the United States declared an end to their strategic air raids with B52s and stopped bombing north of the 20th parallel. The victory "Hanoi - Dien Bien Phu in the air" proved that the battle of the people's hearts had been won and also affirmed the outstanding and great leadership role of our Party and Government. Shortly afterwards the United States sent representatives to Paris to resume negotiations which would lead to the end of the war. Following many exchanges, the resulting agreement was approved and officially signed on January 27th, 1973 at the Kléber International Conference Center.
After the war ended, economic recovery has marked the outstanding development of the Hanoi capital. In 1999, Hanoi was the only city in Asia that was awarded the title of "City for Peace" by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and international friends honoured Hanoi as the "capital of conscience and human dignity”. In 2000, Hanoi was awarded the noble title of "Hero Capital" by the Party and Government. In 2019, Hanoi joined UNESCO's "Creative Cities" network, affirming its leading role as a national political-administrative centre, a major centre of culture, science and education, as well as the country’s international economic and transaction centre - in other words, the heart of the country.